Getting outdoors is truly something special, and I believe one would enjoy going out at least once a week. Discovering a new canyon, a cool rock formation in the middle of nowhere, or a complete caving system can give you thrills just thinking about it. You may have been the only one there, albeit very unlikely.
There are far too many things to cover in this article, but these general guidelines & tips will get you started on the right path.
Plan Your Route, Camping Considerations, Estimating Time, Food & Bush Tucker, Resources, Plan Your Gear & Check The Weather, Navigation, Don't Leave Breadcrumbs!, Leave No Trace, Safety Equipment, Going Ultralight
Do Your Research! Plan & Plan and Plan Again
Give Abraham Lincoln six hours to cut down a tree, and he'll spend the first four sharpening his axe. - Author Unknown
Plan Your Route
If you're new to hiking and exploring, do yourself a favour and join your local bushwalking club and/or head out with other like-minded adventurers first. Planning a trip requires more than simply deciding where to go and when. Whether it's a weekend trip with friends, a formal outdoor program, or a major expedition, you need to evaluate your trip across a number of categories and develop a solid plan.
Whenever you're planning a trip, you need to determine whether the route should fit the group or the group fits the route. The group may have a range of experience levels, physical conditions, technical capabilities, and goals, in which case, your goal should be to plan a trip that is appropriate for everyone. Other times, you may have a specific trip you want to do that may be challenging or require special skills. For this kind of trip, you need to select a group that has the right qualifications to participate.
For advanced-level trips, you may need to do a more formal skill assessment. For example, if you are going to be travelling across glaciers, does everyone have experience travelling on snow, handling an ice axe, and being roped up? Will people need to know special techniques like self-arrest or crevasse rescue?
Each location can have its own unique set of regulations and requirements. Are permits needed, and how do you obtain them? How far in advance do you need to apply for a permit? Trips to remote areas might require you to apply months or even years in advance for a permit.
The point is to familiarise yourself with where you are, where you're going, and what you'll need to execute your plan. So, unless you have a fair bit of experience under your belt, it's probably best to stick to the tracks you know.
Choosing your path wisely can save you a lot of time, effort, and pain. First, find out if there are walking trails that you can use to access the destination. If there aren't, try old, abandoned miners tracks, supply routes, or even old logging roads, etc. If there are none, study the terrain and vegetation. If it's open, dry bushland, stick to the ridgelines – if the terrain is flat, you can walk whichever way makes the most sense. If it is thick rainforest, try the creeks to find your way up to the summit; when the creek gets too thick, then take a ridgeline where the vegetation is thinner. Has a cyclone been through in recent years? Cyclone Yasi knocked out the canopy in some sections of Paluma Range National Park, and it is now super thick with low growth years after it has happened.
Try not to plan long or difficult hikes on every day of the trip. Vary the mileage so that you have some days when you can start later in the morning or get to camp earlier in the evening. On longer trips, schedule a rest day every five to seven days. Make sure that people have some time during each day to kick back, read, write, watch the sunset, do the washing, dry out gear, etc. When hiking at high altitudes, people acclimatise at different rates. You may have to adjust your trip to give people time to properly acclimatise before going higher, especially if people are coming straight from sea level to a high altitude.
Before you set out on your adventure, let someone know the route you intend to take and the time you will be back before they should alert the authorities. Know the times you expect to reach camp, sunset and sunrise times, tide times (if applicable), distances, major climbs and descents, what food you'll eat when and where, how much water you'll need of each leg of the journey, if there's anywhere you can replenish your supplies, and the weather you expect and might not expect.
You can learn so, SO much from other experienced adventurers. I've hiked and camped with many older and experienced people, the oldest person being over 70 years old and an adventurer all of his life. You never stop learning! Tell them your plans, find out their thoughts, what they'd do, and how they'd do it. Wisdom is the application of knowledge, experience, and understanding. Knowledge is powerful, but wisdom is priceless!
You need to make sure that, at the end of the day, you will have a place to set up your tent or hammock that isn't in the middle of a bog or perched on a steep rock slide. Unfortunately, sometimes you don't have the information you need to determine a good campsite in advance, meaning you'll have to locate a spot as you hike.
More than once, I've looked at the map contours and thought, "That looks flat; there must be a good campsite there," only to discover thick underbrush with no open spaces or boulders covering the landscape.
Preferably, you want a site near a water source; otherwise, you may need to carry in enough water for dinner, breakfast the next day, and possibly the next day's hike. Will you need a 10 litre bladder? Is the water source reliable at all times of year? Is the water drinkable, or should it be treated?
If you don't know of a specific campsite, start looking for campsites early in the afternoon. It's better to stop at a good campsite earlier in the day and make up the kilometres the next day, rather than continuing hiking, only to find nothing appropriate for camping. Consider taking a hammock if your trip involves a lot of uneven terrain.
Timing is everything. There are many environmental factors that can impact your route. Getting a truly accurate estimation of hiking times is difficult because there are so many factors, which can include the group's physical condition, pace, and group size, the terrain & vegetation, the elevation gain/loss, setting up abseils, amount of weight being carried, rest stops, how much the group wants to stop and enjoy nature, potential for photography, etc.
In a group, people with different physical abilities or of different ages may move faster or slower, which could change the pace of the entire group. As a general rule, larger groups move more slowly than smaller groups; there are more stops for pack adjustments, bathroom breaks, abseils take longer, etc. Longer hikes (multi-dayers) require a heavier pack, which can slow down the pace as well. Even though the pack gets lighter as the days pass, you will also grow more fatigued, which will tend to even out the pace, despite the lighter pack, in my experience. For longer hikes, it is best if you have a light base weight and lots of food 😅.
An average person's hiking speed on generally flat terrain is about 4 to 5 kilometres per hour; add 1 hour for each 305 meters (1,000 feet) of ascent and about 5 minutes of rest for each hour of hiking, plus meals, etc.
There is a basic formula that can help you calculate your estimated travelling time. Divide the number of kilometres to be hiked by the average pace. Note that trails are around 4 km/h and creek rock hopping is about 0.6 km/h. Also, remember that you will be zigzagging down creeks and rock hopping, and so it could end up being a much longer distance in theory. Your overall average speed could end up being closer to 2.6 km/h. Calculate the total meters of ascent, divide it by 305, and multiply that number by 1 hour. Also, remember to factor in time for rappels, climbing, rescues, etc. Finally, consider how the weather, altitude, and terrain could affect your timings. Adjust the formula to suit your needs, and use it only as an estimate.
(km travelled ÷ average pace) + (elevation gained ÷ 305) + (km travelled x 5 minutes) + (lunch breaks, etc.) + (rappels, climbing, rescue, etc.) = estimated hiking time
So an example formula is:
(15 km ÷ 2.6 km/h) + (400 ÷ 305) + (4 km x 5 minutes) + (lunch break) + (one rappel) = estimated hiking time
(5 hours and 46 minutes) + (1 hour and 18 minutes) + (20 minutes) + (40 minute lunch) + (30 minutes to rappel) = 8 hours and 2 minutes
Once you are hiking, check your actual time against the time you calculated for your route. By keeping a daily trip log with information on hiking times, trail conditions, rest breaks, etc., you can refine your estimates over the duration of your journey. Use your actual travel time to revise your estimates for the next day of your trip. If there is a significant discrepancy, you may need to revise your route plan. I log all of my trips using a Garmin Fenix 5X smart watch that syncs with Strava. Collecting these data can help you and others – if you share it – to learn from and plan future trips.
Planning long-distance trips is entirely different from planning day trips. Once you get into multi-week or multi-month trips, you can't carry all of your food on your back, so you have to start thinking about resupply. Develop some sort of meal rotation so that you don't have to eat the same mac & cheese dinner every night.
Food & Bush Tucker
It is important to have food that is both nourishing and palatable. On longer trips with specialised activities or in different climates, it may be necessary to plan a menu that supplies a specific number of calories per day and emphasises certain food groups over others. Freeze-dried meals, such as Back Country Cuisine, can be ideal, as they are lightweight and small in size, and can even serve as emergency backup meals as well.
It's a good idea to know the plants surrounding you, which ones are dangerous, and which are edible. In the North Queensland rainforest, if you simply brush past the gympie gympie or stinging tree (Dendrocnide moroides), it can cause severe pain that can last up to two years. Knowing how to treat it properly can help relieve the pain.
Similarly, when you're running low on food, knowing which plants are edible can help you supplement your diet. The gympie gympie also produces watery berries that are edible, but is it worth the risk??? If you can't 100% accurately identify a plant, do not risk it.
Investigate the guidebooks and maps for your chosen area. Contact area rangers or land managers to get more information. Inquire about permits required and safety issues, like seasonal hazards (e.g., wildfires). Talk with other people who have been to the area. If possible, check their trip logs, as they may have important information not found in guidebooks.
A great resource for Queensland Mapping is provided by QSpatial, and many titles are available on their platform, Queensland Globe. The high resolution aerial imagery & detailed topographical maps are the first thing I go to. Queensland Globe also provides downloadable & printable versions of the maps. Other great maps are NSW Topo, Victoria Topo, Tasmania Topo, New Zealand Topo.
I also use Backcountry Navigator on my Android phone. I highly recommend Google phones, as they receive the first and latest updates without all of the bloatware. CritterMap Software LLC are also developing a new version, Backcountry Navigator XE, which is currently in beta and will be available on Android, iOS, and the web. Other decent platforms are Gaia and Galileo.
Doing some adventure travelling on a remote tropical island, for example, and can't find decent topographical maps? Check out OpenStreetMap and other OSM-based services & title servers like Thunderforest Outdoor & Mapbox. Need something more powerful, check out ArcGIS.
Other useful tools:
GPS Visualizer - Great for converting, plotting, and analysing data.
Strava - Analyse your trip data.
Trail Forks - Find your local mountain bike trails.
Wikiloc & GPSies - See what others have done, and download their gpx files.
Strava Global Heatmap - Find popular trails and hidden tracks.
TrailForks Global Heatmap - Find hidden tracks and mtb trails.
Relive - Overlay your track recording onto a 3D map.
Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) - Get weather forecasts and natural disaster alerts.
Rural Fire Service - Find out about current bushfires in Queensland.
Plan Your Gear & Check The Weather
These things seem pretty straight-forward, but you're still reading, aren't you?
There's a lot more than just having the best and latest gear to be self-sufficient in the bush. Fancy lightweight tents, liquid fuel stoves, and expensive water filters do not make you exempt from knowing how to use the gear you have with you.
Take into consideration how the weather will affect your setup. Do you have 'the know how' to use a weatherproof fire kit in case your lighter is empty or wet? Are you comfortable pitching your tent or shelter in high wind and rain? Do you know the knots to fix your backpack or hammock if need be? Do you have wet weather gear and warm clothing? Do you know how to pack your raft, repair a punctured tyre, or fix your flooded motorbike? How appropriate is the gear you take for the environment you're in?
How many hours of daylight will there be? Check the internet for sunrise and sunset times and the average high and low temperatures. How will the season determine the weather? Are storms or particular weather patterns likely? How will weather affect trip activities? How might it affect the safety of the group? Will altitude changes during the trip impact the weather or temperatures? Contact area rangers for last-minute trail information.
Have another look at the weather before you head out. Wet rocks are slow going and can be dangerous. Is that $1 poncho from your last Vietnam trip going to keep you dry and warm? Are those old shoes you haven't worn for years going to hold up? What about your dad's flannel shirt that he gave you? Perhaps that $12 tent that was on special at Kmart might not cut it either. I'm all in favour of budget equipment and upgrading quality over the years, but those eBay and AliExpress items need to do their jobs!
Before a multi-day trip, consider taking a overnight trip to check that everything is working as expected and you're not overweighted.
Take A Little More Than You Think You Need
Plans change, sometimes unexpectedly. Always take more water and food than you think you'll need. Also, wet weather gear, warm clothing, a light, a map and compass, extra water, and an emergency meal are essential.
I've been caught out by cold weather. I've had to hike back in the dark, and needed to stray from the original route. I've even been caught out by flash flooding. All of these situations can be manageable if you're carrying the right gear. Being prepared and taking these precautions means you'll spend less time worrying about what could go wrong and more time enjoying yourself.
If you're canyoning in a cold place, you'll probably need a wetsuit; however, in warmer places, like North Queensland, lightweight, quick-drying sporting clothes are best and my preference for nearly all of my outdoor activities. Normal cotton trousers tend to stick to your skin. Jeans are even worse!
Are you going high altitude trekking overseas? Altitude sickness typically only occurs above 2,500 metres (8,000 feet), though some people are affected at lower altitudes, as early as 1,500 metres. Do you have Diamox and a blood oxygen saturation meter? Consider the effect of reduced oxygen and acclimatisation on your hiking pace.
Mother nature is powerful. We are somewhat lucky in North Queensland, as the weather isn't as harsh as other places in the world. If it rains, you probably won't freeze to death; however, you should still carry some wet weather gear and a shelter for your overnight trips if there's a chance it will rain.
As prepared as you may be, if push comes to shove, and things don't go as planned, know that there is no shame in turning back. Even the most experienced hikers find themselves in a 'shit storm' having to bunker down or turn back early. We must adapt to our environment, but knowledge and experience can have their limitations.
Live to venture another day.
Be One With The Old Ways
Always carry paper maps and a quality compass with you, and know how to use them; you should not rely solely on your phone's GPS. That's not to say that you shouldn't use a GPS to confirm your location.
Look behind you regularly, monitor your progress on the map, become situationally aware, and then you'll never doubt yourself. Practise visualising the map in 3D relative to where you are. Look around, and imagine the contour lines on top of the terrain that you see. Then practice committing your track to memory.
Another good idea is to keep your map dry; I like to keep mine in a Sea To Summit waterproof map case. Using a ziplock bag also works, but is not waterproof, so use a laser printer (not an inkjet).
If there's a map of a walk, take a picture of it. It's better to refer back to the picture than your memory. Snap pictures along the trail. Besides, you'll need something to share on social media, but more importantly, you'll want to look back to and reminisce.
Look To The Sky
Practise navigating using the night sky (stars, planets and the moon) as well as using solar navigation. Develop a sound working knowledge of celestial references in the hemisphere; note the direction of north, south, east, or west based on the position of constellations, sunrise, sunset, and/or your shadow direction and height. The compass is king in close or confused terrain, but the heavens guide us best in wide open spaces.
Don't Leave Breadcrumbs!
Do not go blazing trees, using surveyors tape (flagging tape), or spray painting rocks behind you unless you are an experienced trail marker and have set out for that purpose; if that's the case, you should only use tape for the initial trail making process and then more permanent reflective metal markers afterwards - not paint!
If you can navigate properly, you won't need to mark the trail as 'just in case'. If you are marking the trail, you're not only ruining it for others as they try to follow your (possibly) poorly positioned markers, you're out of your depth and shouldn't be there in the first place. Those rock cairns may also lead others astray.
Leave No Trace
The phrase 'Leave No Trace' defines modern outdoor philosophy. It represents a set of guidelines based around minimising your impact, but such guidelines haven't always been around. In the early 1900s, the bush was taken for granted; campers would move, cut, and burn whenever they needed. As environmental knowledge and awareness has grown, the focus has shifted toward conservation.
'Leave No Trace' is all about protecting environments in their natural state, which is what national parks set out to do. Avoid busy periods, as high traffic puts undue pressure on wild spaces, and you may even get the areas all to yourself! 'Leave No Trace' ensures that everyone can enjoy the natural beauty of national parks in harmony; so, this point is the foundation of respect for the park as a whole, rangers, traditional owners, and other visitors.
Hiking is where the real damage happens. The best way to minimise your impact is to stay in single file and stick to the track! Avoid taking shortcuts, which can cause erosion. Veering off the track can lead to trail-braiding, which is ugly, spreads out the impact, and drastically increases erosion. Take secateurs, and keep the existing path clear to avoid trail-braiding. Block offshoots of a track that have developed due to a high volume of people going the wrong way and created a compacted path.
Attempt to "ghost" canyons when possible. This means remove webbing and gear. Avoid bolting rocks if there's adequate natural protection available, and only do so if you have experience bolting in that type of environment.
Avoid lighting fires on rocks and in creek beds. Fire scars are ugly and permanent. Use common sense and be fire smart; avoid starting fires on dry, windy ridge lines, etc. When you're setting up, scrape away the top layer of vegetation, leaving mineral earth. Stay with the fire until you're done with it, and then extinguish it completely and leave it cold. When you leave, scatter the ash and coals around to make it seem as if you were never there.
It is also possible for fires to continue to burn in tree roots underground for days. So, take care when choosing your fire's location. Note that in most Queensland National Parks, open fires are prohibited.
Fallen branches and dead wood provide habitats for native animals. So, bring your own wood to popular places, or use wood that's provided to minimise the impact of your campsite. Where possible, use fuel stoves, as they have less of an impact and are usually better for cooking anyway. Dispose of waste correctly, be responsible, and don't throw waste that won't burn in the fire. Glass bottles, bottle caps, and aluminium foil are often found in fire pits.
Check out the restrictions and conservation programs that might impact the park you're visiting. You might need to follow special procedures, like washing your boots before and after entering. Soil, seeds, and spores can stick to any gear that gets dirty while out in the wild. Help to avoid spreading diseases and invasive species by cleaning your gear before and after use.
Food waste that you leave in the bush will biodegrade eventually, and in some environments faster than others, but not before it's been an eyesore to others, has impacted the native wildlife, or even sprouted an invasive species. Pack it out! Don't feed the animals. Feeding native animals can make them sick and impact their natural behaviours. Feeding animals can also be quite dangerous, as it may encourage them to scavenge campsites for food.
Plan to poop! Learn how to do it correctly! Use toilets beforehand and when provided. Especially in high traffic areas and/or at high altitude, pack out faecal waste for minimum impact. Frozen poop doesn't degrade. When you dig a hole, make sure it's at least 15 cm deep and 100 m from the water, and cover it back up when you're done. You should still pack out toilet paper, wet wipes, sanitary pads, tampons, and condoms because they don't biodegrade.
Use soap and toothpaste sparingly and at least 50 m from water; definitely do not use them in creeks, rivers and water catchments, as they can be harmful wildlife and contaminate drinking water. Use biodegradable options and disperse wastewater in the bush. I like using the Sea to Summit Wilderness multi-purpose wash.
Avoid single use plastics & remove packaging before you go out, if possible. Use reusable containers for food and drink, or make your food from scratch and avoid the waste in the first place. Bring a garbage bag to carry your rubbish out (and any extra rubbish that you find!).
Your actions when finding rubbish will directly impact the next person's experience. You could also be saving an animal's life, protecting the environment, and contributing to the item being recycled properly. Walking past a mess and leaving it for the next person is just as bad. Try adding a rubbish bag to your pack list so there's no excuse for leaving litter behind. Hike It Out! The ABC's War on Waste series inspires plenty of ways to reduce the rubbish we create.
Respect Aboriginal sites and other culturally significant or historic areas by observing quietly, sticking to paths, and never touching. This is also important for nature, in general. Avoid touching trees and moss that you pass, as the damage builds up over time. At camp, avoid tying ropes to trees, as they can easily ringbark the trees.
You've heard the phrase "take only photographs, leave only footprints" and it's a pretty damn good motto. Taking anything else from the natural environment might seem harmless on its own, but the effects quickly add up and can damage habitats. It's also disrespectful to "souvenir" objects from cultural sites, and it's against the law.
Do not think that just because an accident hasn't happened to you that it can't happen.
First Aid Kit
Obviously with every adventure, you should take a PLB (Personal Locator Beacon) and a first aid kit (and know how to use them). Luckily, there aren't too many deadly animals in Australia that are out to attack you.
You should have supplies for providing clean drinking water, extra food, emergency blanket for heat, and a light. These items are important, even on short hikes. Who knows what the future holds? You could injure yourself and not be able to walk, or it could rain and take you four times as long to get back on the slippery, wet rocks.
Your first aid kit needs to be compact and easy to carry and the first thing you reach for when packing your bag for any trip.
You should have most of the following in your first aid kit:
- A Personal Locator Beacon (PLB) – a whistle can also be useful, especially in canyons
- A method for water treatment (chemical, UV, filter, boil) – water purification tablets are light and easy – I like Aquatabs. Ideally, carry supplies to treat your water using two methods
- Two compression bandages for snake bites
- An emergency blanket for hypothermia, such as a space (mylar) blanket
- Painkillers – ibuprofen for muscular pains, paracetamol for general, and aspirin is a good complement and/or alternative
- Antihistamine – such as Benadryl (diphenhydramine)
- Antiseptic solution – such as Betadine (povidone-iodine)
- Dressings – an assortment of heavy duty bandaids, waterproof dressings, wound pads, and a small elastic gauze bandage – Super glue can also be used to seal wounds
- Sterilisation swabs for wound cleaning
- A tube of saline for flushing eyes
- A triangular bandage for broken or dislocated arms
- Blister pads – great if you forget your second pair of socks or wear the wrong socks or shoes. I like using the Compeed Blister Medium
- A sturdy pocket knife or scissors, tweezers, and a pinhead – I use sharp-tipped tweezers and a Opinel No.8 Knife instead of a pinhead and scissors
- Waterproof matches, a lighter, and/or a flint – ideally carry two methods for making a fire.
- Rehydration/electrolyte powders – ideal for dehydration, cramps, and fatigue
- Hand sanitiser, sunscreen, insect repellent, and cash (more of a comfort thing)
For each day of the trip, you should know where or how you would go about getting help in case of an emergency.
I like to keep everything doubled dry-bagged, so everything is kept well-protected from the weather. Your kit should be small and lightweight so that there's no excuse not to take it with you.
Your first aid kit needs to be tailored to your activities, how many people you're catering for, and your knowledge of first aid. Your first aid kit is useless if you don't know how to use it. Knowing how and when to use a compression bandage will save a life, whether it be yours or someone else's. Have the knowledge and confidence to deal with everything from minor cuts to 127 hours.
Do not depend on others for safety - help yourself.
Research online or book into a first aid course so you can learn what to do in different situations. I also have installed the Australian Red Cross First Aid app on my phone which guides you through up-to-date first aid, even if you're offline.
Another useful app is the Emergency+ app, which was developed by Australia's emergency services, government, and industry partners. The app uses the GPS functionality built into smartphones to help a 000 or 911 caller provide critical location details required to mobilise emergency services.
Many places in Australia do not have mobile reception, which renders your phone useless for much of your hike. There are a few options to ensure you can call for help; consider a satellite phone, UHF radio, safety whistles, signal mirrors, morse code, or flares. My personal favourite and the most reliable is a Personal Locator Beacon (PLB), which costs about $300 and lasts 7-10 years. It's very similar to an EPIRB but without the yearly registration costs. I use the Ocean Signal RescueMe PLB1, as it is waterproof, super small, and lightweight.
These small units work by transmitting a distress signal – in fact, they transmit two signals: a 406 MHz (which carries the UIN and GPS data to the satellites) and a 121.5 MHz (a homing frequency) signal. These frequencies are constantly monitored by emergency services. There's no better way to spend your money than on a PLB, especially if you're planning solo adventures.
If in larger groups, consider taking a handheld UHF 5 Watt radio to communicate with the leader and the "tail end Charlie" (last person).
Communication with your partner and team is crucial with high risk activities. Accidents can be caused by lack of or simply poor communication, especially in roped activities. Establish the meanings of hand signs, noises, and words beforehand, and make sure everyone clearly understands them.
Establish A Call-Out Procedure Or Sign In
If there is a logbook, use it; just make sure you sign out afterwards.
If you are going somewhere remote, make sure you let someone reliable know. For example, I let my parents know the following:
- Where I'm going and the route I've planned on taking (try to stick closely to the route)
- Who I'm with (and ideally, the vehicle number plate or colour/make/model or other transport methods)
- When I plan to start and finish
- The cut-off time after which they need to contact emergency services
- The number or details of who they need to contact (it may be Parks, Police or local emergency services, depending on where you are)
The process is simple; if you don't call or message them to confirm you're back safely, they notify the emergency services.
Some people bring everything but their house in order to feel comfortable in the outdoors. All of that weight has an impact on hiking speed, your joints, how many kilometres you can cover, what you can see, and simply the pure pleasure of hiking. You could write an entire book about this topic, but for now, let's just scratch the surface.
Think about those great day hikes you've been on with lightweight boots and a small day pack on your back; you just speed through the day and don't feel completely exhausted at the end. Then, you come back to the same place for a multi-day trip and you have 20+ kilograms on your back; where you were flying before, you’re now just trudging along. But there is an alternative; ultralight backpacking is as close to flying on the trail as you can get.
There's been a revolution in the availability of ultralight clothing, sleeping bags, packs, stoves, and shelters. Each year, the technology improves and outperforms last year's stock in all aspects. For example, check out ZPacks Duplex Flex ultralight tent which only weighs 539 grams! Likewise this new Cuban fibre material is revolutionising ultralight equipment by cutting down the weight of ultralight packs, etc.
Typically, ultralight packs forego a frame altogether. They rely on you to pack your bag correctly by building enough of a frame using your items to transfer the weight. Some have a very light hip belt, while others have no hip belt at all. If you keep the weight low enough, you'll comfortably carry all the weight on your shoulders. If you do a lot of outdoor activities like myself, you'll have a different bag & equipment for each occasion.
However, choosing ultralight weight products comes with a price, and it's not just the price tag. These items may not be as durable as their heavier counterparts. Don't be fooled into thinking that the only factor you need to consider is weight. Flexibility in a garment, like its venting capability, can make something useful over a much broader temperature range. Also, some items can serve dual purposes, such as a rain poncho that doubles as a tarpaulin for an emergency shelter. Ultralighters hate duplication; they will often choose a multi-functional item over a single function item every time.
This article may seem pessimistic and long-winded, but it is meant to get you prepared and to consider possible consequences of your actions.
Learn from your previous trips, educate yourself, plan well, and act intelligently; then, you'll be rewarded with beautiful experiences. Your experiences can continue to brew your never-ending appetite for adventure and feed your hungry soul.
Isn't it funny how, once we get back to civilisation, we instantly forget about the uncomforts we've experienced, that type 1.5 & 2 fun, and that we can't wait to get back out there again?
Get out and enjoy it! Then, come back safely, and share your adventure with friends. Start small, be prepared, and be safe!Most photos are mine or my sister's; however, some were purchased from Adobe Stock or from Unsplash.